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PEI Chito Ryu KARATE

Glossary


Taken from the Canadian Chito-Kai Association "TECHNICAL PROGRAM MANUAL" 1983 (revised 1986, 1987)

 
 

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ATE - To hit or to smash.

AGE UKE - Rising (upward) block.

AGE ZUKI - Rising Punch. A strike which, at the beginning, looks like any other straight punch; however, during execution the fist arcs upward such that the back of the knuckles are used as the striking surface.

AIUCHI - "Simultaneous Scoring Technique." No point awarded to either contestant. Referee brings fists together in front of the chest.

AKA - Red

AKA (SHIRO) IPPON - "Red (White) Scores Ippon." The Referee obliquely raises his arm on the side of the winner (as in ...NO KACHI).

AKA (SHIRO) NO KACHI - "Red (White) Wins!" The Referee obliquely raises his arm on the side of the winner.

ASHI BARAI - Foot Sweep.

ASHI WAZA - Name given to all leg and foot techniques.

 

ATEMI WAZA - Striking techniques that are normally used in conjunction with grappling and throwing techniques.

ATENAI YONI - "Warning without penalty." This may be imposed for attended minor infractions or for the first instance of a minor infraction. The Referee raises one hand in a fist with the other hand covering it at chest level and shows it to the offender.

ATOSHI BARAKU - "A little more time left." An audible signal will be given by the time keeper 30 seconds before the actual end of the bout.

ATTATE IRU - "Contact"

AWASE UKE - Joined Hand Block.

AWASE ZUKI - U Punch. Also referred to as MOROTE ZUKI.

AYUMI DACHI - A stance found in ITOSU-KAI SHITO-RYU. It is a natural "Walking" stance with the weight over the center.

 

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BO - Staff. A long stick used as a weapon (approximately 6 feet long).

BOGYO ROKU KYODO - Six Defense Actions. A basic drill of the Japan Karate-Do Ryobu-Kai. Uses the old names of techniques such as AGE TE, HARAI TE (or GEDAN BARAI), SOTO YOKO TE, UCHI YOKO TE, SHUTO TE, and SUKUI TE.

 

BUDO - Martial way. The Japanese character for "BU" (martial) is derived from characters meaning "stop" and (a weapon like a) "halberd." In conjunction, then, "BU" may have the connotation "to stop the halberd." In Karate, there is an assumption that the best way to prevent violent conflict is to emphasize the cultivation of individual character. The way (DO) of Karate is thus equivalent to the way of BU, taken in this sense of preventing or avoiding violence so far as possible.

BUNKAI - Detailed study of the techniques and practical Kata applications.

 

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CHIKA-MA - "Too short"

CHOKU ZUKI - Straight or direct punch. A punch with either hand from a neutral stance such as soto- or uchi-hachiji-dachi or shiko-ashi-dachi.

CLOSED STANCE - Opponents have the same leg forward (eg. right)

CHUDAN - Middle. During the practice of KIHON IPPON KUMITE (one step basic sparring), the attacker will normally announce where he/she will attack JODAN, CHUDAN, or GEDAN (Upper level, Mid-level, or lower level).

 

CHUDAN ZUKI - A punch to the mid-section of the opponent's body.

CHUI - "Warning"

COUNTING to 10 in JAPANESE - 

1.    Ichi
2.    Ni
3.    San
4.    Shi
5.    Go
6.    Roku
7.    Shichi
8.    Hachi
9.    Kyu or Ku
10.    Ju

 

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DANI - Lever, Rank or Degree. Black Belt rank. Ranks under Black Belt are called KYU ranks.

DEASHI BARAI - Foot sweep

DO - Way/path. The Japanese character for "DO" is the same as the Chinese character for Tao (as in "Taoism"). In Karate, the connotation is that of a way of attaining enlightenment or a way of improving one's character through traditional training.

 

DOJO - "Way place" training hall; Literally "place of the Way." Also "place of enlightenment." The place where Karate is practiced. Traditional etiquette prescribes bowing in the direction of the designated front of the dojo (SHOMEN) whenever entering or leaving the dojo.

DOMO ARIGATO GOZAIMASHITA - Japanese for "thank you very much." At the end of each class, it is proper to bow and thank the instructor and those with whom you've trained.

DOZO - Please; used when offering something.

 

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EKKU - A Wooden oar used by the Okinawans which was improvised as a weapon.

EMBUSEN - Floor pattern of a given kata.

EMPI
(1) One of the Black Belt level KATA, translated as "The Flight of a Sparrow".
(2) Elbow. Sometimes referred to as HIJI.

 

EMPI UCHI - Elbow strike (also called HIJI-ATE); There are various types; see also the specific strike.

ENCHO-SEN - "Extension." After a draw, the match goes into overtime. Referee reopens match with command "SHOBU HAJIME."

 

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FUDO DACHI - Immovable Stance. Also referred to as SOCHIN DACHI.

FUJUBUN - "Not enough power"

 

FUKUSHIN SHUGO - "Judges Conference"

FUMI KOMI - Stamping kick; stomp kick, usually applied to the knee, shin, or instep of an opponent.

 

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GANKAKU DACHI - Crane Stance, sometimes referred to as TSURU ASHI DACHI and SAGI ASHI DACHI.

GASSHUKUA - special training camp.

GEDAN - Low; lower section. During the practice of KIHON IPPON KUMITE (one step basic sparring), the attacker will normally announce where he/she will attack JODAN, CHUDAN, or GEDAN (Upper level, Mid-level, or lower level).

GEDAN BARAI - Low sweep; downward Block.

GEDAN UDE UKE - Low Forearm Block.

GEDAN ZUKI - A punch to the lower section of the opponent's body.

GI - Uniform
(DO GI) (KEIKO GI) (KARATE GI)
Training uniform. In most traditional Japanese and Okinawan Karate Dojo, the GI must be white and cotton (Synthetics with Cotton allowed). The only markings allowed are the official club patch on the left breast area and the person's name at the front bottom corner of the jacket.

 

GO-HON KUMITE - An assault of five attacks, usually with five paces, with only the last attack countered.  Five step basic sparring. The attacker steps in five consecutive times with a striking technique with each step. The defender steps back five times, blocking each technique. After the fifth block, the defender executes a counter-strike.

GO- NO- SEN - Re-taking the initiative in Kumite. The tactic where one allows the opponent to attack first so to open up targets for counteracttack.

GYAKU MAWASHI GERI - Reverse Round-house Kick.

GYAKU ZUKI - Reverse Punch. A punch with the hand opposite to the forward foot.

 

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HACHIJI DACHI - Figure eight stance; May be either soto- or uchi-.  A natural stance, feet positioned about one shoulder width apart, with feet pointed slightly outward.

HAI - "Yes"

HAISHU UCHI - A strike with the back of the hand.

HAISHU UKE - Backhand block.  A block using the back of the hand.

HAJIME - Begin. A command given to start a given drill, Kata, or Kumite.

HAITO UCHI - Ridge-hand Strike.

HANGETSU - A Black Belt level Kata.

HANGETSU DACHI - "Half-Moon" Stance.

HANMI - Half-front facing

HANSHI - "Master." An honorary title given to the highest Black Belt of an organization, signifying their understanding of their art. 

HANSOKU - "Foul." This is imposed following a very serious infraction. It results in the opponent's score being raised to SANBON.  HANSOKU is also invoked when the number of HANSOKU-CHUI and KEIKOKU imposed raise the opponent's score to SANBON.  The Referee points with his index finger tot he face of the offender at a 45 degree angle and announces a victory for the opponent.

HANSOKU CHUI - "Warning with an IPPON penalty. This is a penalty in which IPPON is added to the opponent's score. HANSOKU-CHUI is usually imposed for infractions for which a KEIKOKU has previously been given in that bout. The Referee points with his index finger to the abdomen of the offender of the offender parallel to the floor.

HANTEI - "Judgment." Referee calls for judgment by blowing his whistle and the Judges render their decision by flag signal.

HANTEI KACHI - "Winner by decision".

HANTEN - Half-turn

HARAI TE - Sweeping technique with the arm.

HARAI WAZA - Sweeping techniques.

HASAMI ZUKI - Scissor Punch.

HEIKO DACHI - Parallel stance.  Open leg stance with heels hip width apart and toes pointing forward.  A natural stance. Feet positioned about one shoulder width apart, with feet pointed straight forward. Some Kata begin from this position.

 

HEIKO DACHI (HIGAONNA LINE) - A Heiko Dachi stance, where the front foot is turned slightly inwards while the rear foot is straight. 

HEIKO ZUKI - Parallel Punch.  Both fists punch together, arms shoulder width apart horizontally (A double, simultaneous punch).

HEISOKU DACHI - Closed or blocked foot stance, toes and heels together.  An informal attention stance. Feet are together and pointed straight forward.

HEITO UCHI - Back sword strike.  Thumb side of hand used to strike.

HENKA WAZA - Techniques used after OYO WAZA is applied. HENKA WAZA is varied and many, dependent on the given condition.

HIDARI - "Left"

HIJI - "Elbow", also known as Empi.

HIJI ATEMI - Elbow Strikes.

HIJI UKE - A blocking action using the elbow.

HIJI-ATE - elbow strike (also called EMPI-UCHI)

HIKIASHI - Drawing front foot back (after a kick)

HIKITE - Pulling hand.  The retracting (pulling and twisting) arm during a technique. It gives the balance of power to the forward moving technique. It can also be used as a pulling technique after a grab, or a strike backward with the elbow.

HIKIWAKE - "Draw." Referee crosses arms over chest, then uncrosses and holds arms out from the body with the palms showing upwards.

HIRAKEN UCHI - Flat fist strike. The fingers are bent at the knuckles only and these knuckles are then used as the striking surface.

HITOSASHI IPPON KEN - Forefinger Knuckle.

HITTSUI - Knee hammer (see also "Hiza Geri"). A smash with the knee.

HIZA GERI - Knee Kick (see also "Hittsui"). A smash with the knee.

HIZA UKE - A blocking action using the knee.

HOMBU DOJO - A term used to refer to the central dojo of an organization.

HORAN NO KAMAE - "Egg in the Nest Ready Position." A "ready" position used in some KATA where the fist in covered by the other hand.

 

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IAIGOSHI DACHI - Kneeling stance, on one knee (found in the Rohai-dai Kata)

INASU - evasion of an on-coming attack through the course of removing the body from the line of attack.

IPPON DACHI - One leg stance (see Mae-tsuru-dachi and Tsuru-ashi-dachi)

IPPON KEN - "One Knuckle Fist".

IPPON KEN ZUKI - One knuckle punch.  The middle joint of the index finger is allowed to protrude.

 

IPPON KUMITE - One-point, pre-arranged sparring. One step sparring.

IPPON NUKITE - A stabbing action using the extended index finger.

IPPON SHOBU - One point match, used in tournaments.

IRIMI - to penetrate, to enter. Usually describes moving closer to the opponent than the attack as you close in defense. 

 

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JIKAN - "Time".

JIYU IPPON KUMITE - One step free sparring. The participants can attack with any technique whenever ready.

JIYU KUMITE - Free Sparring.

JO - Wooden staff about 4'-5' in length. The JO originated as a walking stick.

JITSU - Hard.  As in the concept Kyo, Jitsu.

JIYU IPPON KUMITE - Semi-free, one-point, pre-arranged sparring.

JIYU KUMITE - Free sparring.

JODAN - High.  Upper level. During the practice of KIHON IPPON KUMITE (one step basic sparring), the attacker will normally announce where he/she will attack JODAN, CHUDAN, or GEDAN (Upper level, Mid-level, or lower level).

JODAN AGE UKE - Upper rising block.

JODAN USHIRO EMPI UCHI - High, backward elbow strike.

 

JODAN USHIRO ZUKI - High, backward punch.  Executed by punching over the shoulder with the opposite hand such that the palm side of the fist is facing down.

JOGAI - "Exit from fighting area." The Referee points with his index finger at a 45 degree angle to the area boundary on the side of the offender.

JOGAI HANSOKU CHUI - "Fourth and Final Exit from the fighting area." Fourth exit from the fighting area causes victory to the opponent.

JOGAI HANSOKU CHUI - "Third exit from fighting area". Referee uses two hand signals with announcement "AKA (or SHIRO) JOGAI HANSOKU CHUI".  He first points with his index finger to the match boundary on the side of the offender, then to the offender's abdomen. An IPPON is awarded to the opponent.

JOGAI KEIKOKU - "Second exit from fighting area." WAZA-ARI penalty is given to the opponent.

JOSEKI - Upper side of Dojo.

JUJI UKE - Figure ten block.  Alternate name for "Kosa uke" (usually open handed). X Block.

JUN ZUKI - The WADO RYU term for OI-ZUKI.

 

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KAESHI - Reverse direction.

KACHI - Victorious. (e.g., AKA KACHI) in a tournament.

KAGI ZUKI - Hook Punch.

KAITEN - Rotation.

KAISHO - Open hand. This refers to the type of blow which is delivered with the open palm. It can also be used to describe other hand blows in which the fist is not fully clenched.

KAKE ASHI DACHI - Hooked stance.  This stance is a form of Kosa-dachi.  The legs are locked firmly together (shime) so that one can execute a strong technique.

KAKE-TE - Hook Block.

KAKIWAKE UKE - Wedge block. A block with both hands which drive apart.  A two handed block using the outer surface of the wrist to neutralize a two-handed attack, such as a grab.

KAKUTO UCHI - Bent wrist strike.

KAKUSHI WAZA - "Hidden techniques."

KAKUTO UCHI - Wrist joint strike. Also known as "KO UCHI."

KAKUTO UKE - Wrist Joint Block. Also known as KO UKE.

KAMAE - A posture or stance either with or without a weapon. KAMAE may also connote proper distance (Ma-ai) with respect to one's partner. Although "KAMAE" generally refers to a physical stance, there is an important prallel in Karate between one's physical and one's psychological bearing. Adopting a strong physical stance helps to promote the correlative adoption of a strong psychological attitude. It is important to try so far as possible to maintain a positive and strong mental bearing in Karate.

KAMAE-TE - A command given by the instructor for students to get into position.

KAMIZA - Upper seat of Dojo.

KAPPO - Techniques of resuscitating people who have succumbed to a shock to the nervous system.

KARATE - "Empty Hand". When Karate was first introduced to Japan, it was called "TO-DE". The characters of TODE could be pronounced. However, the meaning of TODE is Chinese Hand.

KARATE-DO - "The Way of Karate". This implies not only the physical aspect of Karate, but also the mental and social aspects of Karate.

KARATEKA  - A practitioner of Karate.

KATA - A "form" or prescribed pattern of movement. (But also "shoulder.")

KEAGE - Snap Kick. (Keri-age = "snap kick"). The work "kick (keri)" is understood; therefore to say Mae-Keage-Geri is not necessary.  It is simply Mae-keage, Yoko-keage.

KEIKO
(1) Training. The only secret to success in Karate.
(2) Joined Fingertips.

KEIKOKU - "Warning with WAZA-ARI penalty in SANBON SHOBU. This is a penalty in which WAZA-ARI is added to the opponent's score. KEIKOKU is imposed for minor infractions for which a warning has previously been given in that bout, or for infractions not sufficiently serious enough to merit HANSOKU-CHUI. Referee points with his indes finger to the feet of the offender at an angle of 45 degrees.

KEKOMI - Thrust Kick (Keri-komi = "kick in"), literally, "Kick Straight Into".  The work "Kick (keri)" is understood; therefore to say Mae-kekomi-geri is not necessary.  It is simply Mae-kekomi or Yoko-kekomi.

KEMPO - "Fist Law." A generic term to describe fighting systems that uses the fist. In this regard, KARATE is also KEMPO.

KENSEI - Fake movement. The technique with silent KIAI. Related to meditation.

KENTSUI - Hammer Fist Also known as TETTSUI.

KENTSUI UCHI (Or TETTSUI UCHI) - Hammer Fist Stike.

KERI - Kick.

 

KI - Mind. Spirit. Energy. Vital-force. Intention. (Chinese "chi") The definitions presented here are very general. KI is one word that cannot be translated directly into any language.

KI-O-TSUKE - "Attention". Musubi Dachi with open hands down both sides.

KIAI - A shout delivered for the purpose of focusing all of one's energy into a single movement. Even when audible KIAI are absent, one should try to preserve the feeling of KIAI at certain crucial points within Karate techniques. Manifestation of KI (simultaneous union of spirit and expression of physical strength).

(View an essay on "The Kiai" by Collin Affleck, May 2000)

KIBA DACHI - Staddle Stance. Also known as NAIFANCHI or NAIHANCHI DACHI.

KIHON - (Something which is) fundamental. Basic techniques.

KIHON DOSA - Basic movement.

KIKEN - "Renunciation." The Referee points one index finger towards the contestant.

KIME - Focus.  To concentrate one's spiritual, physical and mental energies into an ate, uchi, uke, tsuki or keri.

KIRITSU - Stand.

KIYOTSUKE - Attention.

KIZAMI ZUKI - Jab punch.  A punch with the forward hand which snaps back immediately.  A choku-zuki or mae-te-zuke which immediately snaps back.  It is executed from Chudan-kamae.

KO BO ICHI - The concept of "Attack-Defence Connection".

KO UCHI - Wrist joint strike. Also known as KAKUTO UCHI.

KO UCHI MAWASHI GERI - Small inner round kick.

KO UKE - "Crane Block" or "Arch Block". Same as KAKUTO UKE.

KOHAI - A student junior to oneself.

KOHO KAITEN - Backwards roll.

KOKEN - Wrist Joint.

KOKO - Tiger-mouth hand.

KOKORO - "Spirit, Heart." In Japanese culture, the spirit dwells in the Heart.

KOKUTSU DACHI - A stance which has most of the weight to the back. Referred to in English as Back Stance.

KOKYU HO - Method of breathing.

KOSA ASHI - Crossing foot motion.

KOSA DACHI - Cross "X" stance.  This stance is transitory in nature and does not necessarily require shime.  See also "Kake ashi dachi".

KOSA UKE - Cross "X" block.  Intersecting defence - usually closed handed.  See also "Juji-uke".

KOSHIN - Rearward.

KUATSU - The method of resuscitating a person who has lost consciousness due to strangulation or shock.

KUBOTAN - A self-defense tool developed by TAKAYUKI KUBOTA. This tool serves normally as a key chain.

KUDASAI - Please.  Used when requesting something.

KUMADE - Bear hand.

KUMITE - "Meeting of the hands"; sparring.

KYO - Soft.  As in the concept of Kyo, Jitsu.

KYOSHI - "knowledgeable person," and usually this title is conferred at rokudan or shichidan, depending on system. I think the most common practice in the large organizations is for this to be at shichidan (7th dan).

KYU - A suffix meaning "Level".  This applies to levels below Shodan.  "Grade". Any rank below Shodan.

KYUSHO WAZA - Pressure Point techniques.

 

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MA - Distance (Ma-ai)

MA-AI - Proper distancing or timing with respect to one's partner. Since Karate techniques always vary according to circumstances, it is important to understand how differences in initial position affect the timing and application of techniques.

MA-TOMA - Intermediary distance.

MAAI GA TOH - "not proper distance"

MAE - Front.

MAE ASHI GERI - Kicking with the front leg.

MAE EMPI UCHI - Forward Elbow Strike.

MAE GERI - Front kick.

MAE KEAGE - Front Snap Kick.

MAE KEKOMI - Front Thrust Kick.

MAE TE ZUKI - Forward hand punch.  A punch with the hand on the same side as the forward foot.  NOTE: It may follow a step forward, but the step is not used to add power.

MAE TOBI GERI - Forward jump kick.

MAE TSURU ASHI DACHI - A form of crane stance.  A one leg stance in which the toes are up. ISee "Ippon Dachi" and "Tsuru Ashi Dachi")

MAE UKEMI - forward fall/roll.

MAKOTO - A feeling of absolute sincerity and total frankness, which requires a pure mind, free from pressure of events.

MANABU - "Learning by imitating." A method of studying movement and techniques by following and imitating the instructor.

MANJI UKE - A Double block where one arm executes GEDAN BARAI to one side, while the other arm executes JODAN UCHI UKE (or JODAN SOTO YOKO TE).

MATTE - "Wait".

MAWARI - Turn

MAWARI USHIRO GERI - Back round kick. A back kick linked with a turn.

 

MAWASHI EMPI UCHI - Circular Elbow Strike. Also referred to as MAWASHI HIJI ATE.

MAWASHI GERI - Round kick.  May be Soto-, Ura-, Uchi-. (Usually refers to Uchi-)

MAWASHI HIJI ATE - Circular Elbow Strike. Also referred to as MAWASHI EMPI UCHI.

MAWASHI ZUKI - Roundhouse Punch.

MAWATE - Command to turn (around).

MIENAI - "I could not see." A call by a judge to indicate that a given technique was not visible form his/her angle.

MIGI - Right.

MIKAZUKI GERI - "Three-Day moon" (crescent) Kick.  May be Soto- or Uchi-.  (Usually refers to Uchi-)

MOKUSO - Meditate. Practice often begins or ends with a brief period of meditation. The purpose of meditation is to clear one's mind and to develop cognitive equanimity. Perhaps more importantly, meditation is an opportunity to become aware of conditioned patterns of thought and behavior so that such patterns can be modified, eliminated or more efficiently put to use.

MOROTE UKE - Both hands block.  Block where both hands are used, separately or one reinforcing the other.  Augmented Block. One arm and fist support the other arm in a block.

MOROTE ZUKI - U-Punch. Punching with both fists simultaneously. Also referred to as AWASE ZUKI.

MOTO NO ICHI - "Original Position." Contestants, Referee and Judge return to their respective standing lines.

MUDANSHA - General term referring to ranks below Shodan.  Students without black-belt ranking.

MUMOBI - "Warning for lack of regard for ones own safety." Referee points one index finger in the air at a 60 degree angle on the side of the offender.

MUSHIN - To think of nothing; a state of mental consciousness.

MUSUBI DACHI - Open toe stance.  Heels together, toes apart 45 degrees.

 

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NI - 
       1. In the direction of...
       2. The number TWO

NO - "Of"

NAGE - Throw

NAKATAKA IPPON KEN ZUKI - Middle finger one-knuckle punch.

NAMI ASHI UKE - Inside foot snapping kick block. (NAMI ASHI = "Wave Returning").  An inward kick with the sole.

  NAOSHITE - To fix or adjust.

NEKO ASHI DACHI - Cat leg stance.

NIDAN GERI - Two level kick.  A jump kick where one foot kicks and them the other; eg. to stomach and head.

NUKITE - Piercing hand (spear hand).  A strike using the tips of the fingers.

 

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OBI - Belt.

OI ZUKI - Pursuit punch.  A punch linked with a forward lunge step.  The lunge adds power to the punch.

OKUTSU DACHI - Deep forward rotated stance (found in Bassai, Sanshi-ryu)

OPEN STANCE - Opponents have the opposite leg forward, ie. right/left

ONEGAI SHIMASU - "I welcome you to train with me," or literally, "I make a request." This is said to one's partner when initiating practice.

OSAE UKE - Pressing Block.

OSHI ZUKI - Pushing punch.  This punch is executed so that the opponent will be not only hit, but pushed backwards, thus setting him up for another blow.  An example of this may be found in RO-HAI katas.

 

OTAGAI - Each other.

OTOSHI EMPI UCHI - Dropping elbow strike in which the elbow descends vertically so that the point of the elbow is the striking area and the forearm remains perpendicular to the ground.  An elbow strike by dropping the elbow. Also referred to as Otoshi Hiji Ate.

OTOSHI GERI - Dropping kick in which gravity alone is used to create the force of the kick.

O UCHI MAWASHI GERI - Large inner round kick.

OYAYUBI IPPON KEN - Thumb Knuckle.

OYO WAZA - Applications interpreted from techniques in Kata, implicated according to a given condition.

 

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REI - "Respect". A method of showing respect in Japanese culture is the Bow. It is proper for the junior person bows lower than the senior person.

REIGI - Etiquette. Also referred to as REISHIKI. Observance of proper etiquette at all times (but especially observance of proper DOJO etiquette) is as much a part of one's training as the practice of techniques. Observation of etiquette indicates one's sincerity, one's willingness to learn, and one's recognition of the rights and interests of others.

REINOJI DACHI - A stance with feet making a 'L-shape.'

RENSEI - Practice Tournament. Competitors are critiqued on their performances.

 

RENSHI - "A person who has mastered oneself." This person is considered an expert instructor. This status is prerequisite before attaining the status as KYOSHI. Renshi "has a name." Renshi is no longer one of the many, so to speak. Renshi is usually given at yodan to rokudan, depending on the system.

REN ZUKI - Alternate punching.  Punching with one hand then the other continuously.

RENZOKU WAZA - Continuous or combination techniques.

RYOTE - Both hands used simultaneously (See "Morote")

RYOTE USHIRO EMPI - Double backward elbow strike in which both fists draw back to the hip.

 

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SAGI ASHI DACHI - One Leg Stance. Also referred to as GANKAKU DACHI or TSURU ASHI DACHI.

SAI - An Okinawan weapon that is shaped like the Greek letter 'Psi' with the middle being much longer.

SANBON KUMITE - An assault of three attacks, usually with three paces, with only the last attack countered.

SANBON SHOBU - Three Point match. Used in tournaments.

SANCHIN DACHI - Hour-glass Stance.

SAN REN ZUKI - Three alternate punches.

SASHITE - Raising of the hand either to strike, grab, or block.

SAYU ZUKI - A two-handed punch in which the fists are 180-degrees opposite each other.  An example of this may be found in Ro-Hai katas.

SEIKEN - Regular fist.

SEIRETSU - Line up straight.

SEIRYUTO - Bull Strike. A hand technique delivered with the base of the SHUTO (Knife hand).

SEISAN DACHI - Forward stance similar to hangetsu-dachi.  Weight distribution 60% - 40%

SEIZA - Formal seated position.  A proper sitting position. Sitting on one's knees. Sitting this way requires acclimatization, but provides both a stable base and greater ease of movement than sitting cross-legged. It is used for the formal opening and closing of the class.

SEMPAI - A senior student.

SEN - Taking the initiative.

SEN NO SEN - An initiative taken against an initiative.  Attacking at the exact moment when the opponent attacks.

SEN SEN NO SEN - Attacking before the opponent attacks. Preemptive attack.

SENSEI - Teacher. It is usually considered proper to address the instructor during practice as "Sensei" rather than by his/her name. If the instructor is a permanent instructor for one's DOJO or for an organization, it is proper to address him/her as "Sensei" off the mat as well.

SHIAI - A match or a contest (Event).

SHIDOIN - Formally recognized Instructor who has not yet be recognized as a SENSEI. Assistant Instructor.

SHIHAN - A formal title meaning, approximately, "master instructor." A "teacher of teachers." Hanshi is "wise" or sage-like, hence the common translation of "master." Shinan may be an alternative pronunciation.

SHIKKAKU - "Disqualification." This is a disqualification from the actual tournament, competition, or match. The opponent's score is raised to SANBON.  In order to define the limit of SHIKKAKU, the Referee Council must be consulted.  SHIKKAKU may be invoked when a contestant commits an act which harms the prestige and honor of Karate-Do and when other actions are considered to violate the rules of the tournament.  Referee uses two hand signals with the announcement "AKA (SHIRO) - SHIKKAKU." He first points with his index to the offender's face then obliquely above and behind him. The Referee will announce with the appropriate gesture as previously given "AKA (SHIRO) NO KACHI!"

 

SHIKO DACHI - Square Stance. A stance often used in Goju-Ryu and Shito-Ryu.

SHIKO ZUKI - A punch to the side while in Shiko-Ashi-Dachi (See Yum-Zuki "bow & arrow" punch)

SHIME - Contraction.

SHIMO SEKI - Lower side of dojo.

SHIMOZA - Lower seat of dojo.

SHIRO - White

SHIZEN TAI - Outer figure eight stance.  Open leg stance heels hip width apart and toes pointing out at 45 degrees (See Soto-Hachiji-Dachi).  Natural Position. The body remains relaxed but alert.

SHOBU HAJIME - "Start the Extended Bout."

SHOBU SANBON HAJIME - "Start the Bout"

SHOMEN - Front. Front or top of head. Also the designated front of a Dojo.

SHOWA - "Enlightened peace."  Statement of attitude recited at the end of class.

SHUGO - Assemble.  "Judges Called." The Referee beckons with his arms to the Judges.

SHUTO TE - Same as SHUTO UKE. This name was used before the advent of sport karate. Used to describe one of the techniques in BOGYO ROKU KYODO.

SHUTO UCHI - Hand sword strike.

SHUTO UKE - Hand sword block.

SOCHIN DACHI - Immovable Stance. Also referred to as FUDO DACHI.

SOKE - Founding family.

SOKUTO - Edge of foot. This term is often used to refer to the side thrust kick.

SOREMADE - Stop everything.

SOTO - Outer (from inside to outside)

SOTO HACHIJI DACHI - Outer figure eight stance.  Open leg stance heels hip width apart and toes pointing out 45 degrees. (See Shizen-Tai)

SOTO MAWASHI GERI - Outward round kick (from inside outward.)  (Same as Gyaku-Mawashi-Geri)

SOTO MIKAZUKI GERI - "Three-day moon kick" or crescent kick using outer edge of foot.

SOTO UKE - Outside block.  Block moves from inside to outside.

SOTO YOKO TE - Same as UCHI UDE UKE. This name was used before the advent of sport karate. Used to describe one of the techniques in BOGYO ROKU KYODO.

SUKUI TE - Same as SUKUI UKE. This name was used before the advent of sport karate. Used to describe one of the techniques in BOGYO ROKU KYODO.

SUKUI UKE - Scooping Block.

SURI ASHI - Sliding foot motion.  (Stance lengthens, then shortens)

SUWARI WAZA - Techniques from a sitting position.

 

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TAI SABAKI - Body movement/shifting.

TAIMING GA OSOI - "Not proper timing"

TATE EMPI - Rising elbow strike in which the strike arcs upward and the fist comes to rest above the shoulder with the palm of the fist towards the ear.

TATE URAKEN UCHI - Vertical back-fist attack.

TATE ZUKI - Upright or vertical (fist) punch. A fist punch with the palm along a vertical plane.

TE HODOKI NO WAZA - Wrist escape techniques.

TEIJI DACHI - A Stance with the feet in a 'T-shape'

TEISHO UCHI - Heel of palm strike.

TEISHO UKE - Heel of palm block.

TEKUBI KAKE UKE - Wrist hooked block

TETTSUI UCHI - Iron hammer strike.  A strike using the little finger side of the fist.

TOBI GERI - Jump Kick.

TOMA - "Too far"

TONFA - A farm tool developed into a weapon by the Okinawans.

 

TORANAI - "No Point"

TORI - Attacker.

TORIMASEN - "Unacceptable as scoring techniques." As HIKIWAKE, but culminating with the palms facing downwards towards body.

TSUKAMI WAZA - Catching technique. A blocking technique by seizing the opponent's weapon, arm, or leg. Used often for grappling techniques.

TSUKAMI UKE - Grasping block; a block with a grip.

TSUKI - Closed hand thrust (punch).

TSURU ASHI DACHI - Crane stance; a one-legged stance.  (see Mai Tsuru Ashi Dachi).

TSUZUKETE - "Fight On!" Resumption of fighting ordered when unauthorized interruption occurs.

TSUZUKETE HAJIME - "Resume Fighting - Begin!" Referee standing upon his line, steps back into ZENKUTSU DACHI and brings the palms of this hands toward each other.

TUITE - Grappling skills.

 

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UCHI - 
1. To strike
2. Inner (from outside to inside)

UCHI DESHI - A live-in student. A student who lives in a dojo and devotes him/herself both to training and to the maintenence of the dojo (and sometimes to personal service to the SENSEI of the dojo).

UCHI HACHIJI DACHI - Inner figure eight stance.  Open leg stance with heels hip width apart and toes pointing in at 45 degrees.

UCHI MAWASHI GERI - Inner round kick (from outside inward).  (see also "O UCHI MAWASHI GERI" and "KO UCHI MAWASHI GERI").

UCHI MIKAZUKI GERI - "Three-day moon kick" or crescent kick using inner edge of foot.

UCHI MIKAZUKI GERI UKE - "Three-day moon kick block".  Crescent kick block using the sole of the foot executed from the outside to the inside.

UCHI UKE - Inside block.  Block moves from the outside to inside.

UCHI YOKO TE - Same as SOTO UDE UKE. This name was used before the advent of sport karate. Used to describe one of the techniques in BOGYO ROKU KYODO.

 

UKE - 
1. Block
2. Defender

UKEMI - Breakfalls as a means of protexting the body from injury due to sweeps and the like.  Most basic forms are rolls and flatfalls.

URA ZUKI - An upper cut punch used at close range.

URAKEN UCHI - Backfist strike.

URAKEN UKE - Backfist block.

URA MAWASHI GERI - Round kick outward with heel as striking surface.

URA TETSUI UCHI - Back of iron hammer strike, using the thumb side of the fist.

URA ZUKI - Close punch.  Straight punch with the fist slightly pointed upward and wrist turned with palm up.

USHIRO EMPI UCHI - Back elbow strike.

USHIRO GERI - Back kick.  A kick straight back with heel.

USHIRO TOBI GERI - Back jump kick.

USHIRO MAWARI TOBI GERI - Spinning back jump kick.

USHIRO UKEMI - Back flat fall.

 

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WA-UKE  A block where the path taken is similar to the yoko-uke. Imagine wiping a wall in front of you with your palm in a half-circle. At the end of the block the hand is angled slightly to the outside. This block occurs in the Shinpa kata.

 

WAZA - Technique(s).

WAZA ARI - "Half point"

 

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YAMA ZUKI - A wide "U-shaped" punch.  The upper arm is the actual punch which swings to the higher position.  The lower arm arcs downward such that the forearm is used as a block to the opponent's attack.

YAME - Stop!

YASUMI - Rest. A term used by the instructor to have the students relax, normally following a long series of drills.

YOI - Ready.

YOKO - Side.

YOKO EMPI UCHI -  Side elbow strike in which the point of the elbow is used to strike.

YOKO GERI - Side kick.

YOKO KEAGE - Side snap kick.

 

YOKO KEKOMI - Side thrust kick.

YOKO MAWASHI EMPI UCHI - Striking with the elbow to the side.

YOKO TOBI GERI - Side jump kick.

YOKO UKEMI - Side flat fall.

YORI ASHI - Skip step motion (Stance shortens then lengthens.  Also called "KIZAMI ASHI")

YOWAI - "Weak Focus"

YUDANSHA - General term for the rank of Shodan (Black belt holder) and above.

YUMI ZUKI - Bow-and-arrow punch.  A punch to the side while in SHIKO ASHI DACHI (see also Shiko Zuki)

 

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ZA-REI - The traditional Japanese bow from the kneeling position.

ZANSHIN - A mental attitude of being absolutely attentive.  Lit. "remaining mind/heart." Even after a Karate technique has been completed, one should remain in a balanced and aware state. ZANSHIN thus connotes "following through" in a technique, as well as preservation of one's awareness so that one is prepared to respond to additional attacks.

(View an essay on "Zanshin" by Ken Roper, October 2001)

 

ZENKUTSU DACHI - Forward Stance.

ZENPO KAITEN - Forward roll:
A. Feet facing direction of roll;
B. Feet facing reverse direction of roll;
C. To fall flat.
 

ZENSHIN - Forward.

ZORI - Japanese slippers.

ZUKI - Punch.  Form of "Tsuki" used at end of compound word.

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